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I shall not mention the names of particualr viruses for fear of giving any nasty little satisfaction to their nasty little perpetrators. The laws of physics are supposed to be Dating a transsexual woman all over the accessible universe.

In canaries Serinus canariafemales normally sing less often and with less complexity than males. This mutant meme, then, has two separate survival values over the original form that it replaced: Obviously I do not know but, if I had to bet, I would put my money on one fundamental principle.

Suppose, for the sake of argument, it happened to be the case that marriage weakened the power of a priest to influence his flock, say because it occupied a large proportion of his time and attention. I believe that, given the right conditions, replicators automatically band together to create systems, or machines, that carry them around and work to favour their continued replication.

Anyone interested in a basic grasp of the subject should review this webpage. For example, tribal religion has been seen as a mechanism for solidifying group identity, valuable for a pack-hunting species whose individuals rely on cooperation to catch large and fast prey. The other apostles, whose faith was so strong that they did not need evidence, are held up to us as worthy of imitation.

Many of them are literally wired up together in electronic mail exchange. This looks quite unlike the particulate, all-or-none quality of gene transmission.

These findings are also in line with Leonardo's efference copy model of error correction in birdsong learning and production. For more than three thousand million years, DNA has been the only replicator worth talking about in the world. Other dialect groups sang different songs.

I have said a tune is one meme, but what about a symphony: Any user of a digital computer knows how precious computer time and memory storage space are.

EEB - Evolution: Contents include evolutionary biology books relevant to this course, papers and books mentioned in last year's lectures, information on term paper assignment with tips on researching for it, and exemplary term papers from previous years.

I think it really would be a worthwhile investment in yourself. I appeal to them: This study offered further support for role of auditory feedback in maintaining adult song stability and demonstrated how adult maintenance of crystallized birdsong is dynamic rather than static.

Popular songs and stiletto heels are examples. A simple replicator, whether gene or meme, cannot be expected to forgo short-term selfish advantage even if it would really pay it, in the long term, to do so.